The History and Culture of Europe, shared with you by our European volunteers!

29 de Março de 2018.

King Sebastian of Portugal

Probably one of the most famous kings in Portuguese history. King Sebastian of Portugal (20 January 1554 – 4 August 1578) is very popular amongst us volunteers so that it took me a little discussion so that I am finally the one who writes about “the desired”. But why is he so famous? Was it because he invited the Jesuit order in 1569 to the island of Madeira after a huge French privateer attack in 1566 where French soldiers robbed and plundered the archipelago? Or because he was the youngest king Portugal ever had, who became king with just 3 years because his father Prince John died before he was born, his mother Joanna of Spain returned shortly after his […]
26 de Março de 2018.

D. Maria I – The crazy Queen

D.Maria I was very religious and got completely crazy during her lifetime. Maria Francisca Isabel Josefa Antónia Gertrudes Rita Joana (Maria I) was the daughter of José I de Portugal and Mariana Victoria of Spain. Maria was born in 1734 and grew up with her sisters at the court in Lisbon. They seemed to have a good life, they were loved by their father and they did a lot of things, like riding horses, learning to draw and read French and Latin. But things happened in Maria´s lifetime that slowly drove her crazy. For example the earthquake in Lisbon, which killed thousands of people. She had to marry her uncle (at the age of 17) and apart from that she […]
22 de Março de 2018.

War & Peace: Dom João I

The military successes (and failures) of Dom João I of Portugal. João I reigned as the 10th king of Portugal, succeeding Fernando I in 1385. As the naturalized son of Pedro I and a Galician noblewomen, his ascension to the throne represented the beginning of the Aviz dynasty. His coronation came during a time of conflict with the Castilian crown, who had sought authority over Portugal during a period of anarchy following the death of Fernando. It could be said that turbulent relations with Portugal’s Iberian neighbours defined João’s reign. João is commonly referred to as ‘the good’ or ‘the great’ by the Portuguese, due primarily to his victories over the Moroccan Marinid Empire in Ceuta as part of the […]
19 de Março de 2018.

Last king of Portugal: Manuel II

Manuel II had the time to be a king for only about two and half years. King Manuel II was born in 15th of November 1889. He was the third child and the last son of King Carlos and Queen Amélie of Orléans and Braganza. They belonged to Braganza family, the fourth and last reigning dynasty of Portugal. His big brother Luís Filipe, as crown prince, was raised to become the king some day. He was interested in for example literature, reading and music. Other things that he liked to do on his free time were horse riding, fencing, rowing, tennis and gardening. Manuel was supposed to enter the Portuguese Naval academy. The plans changed, when in the 1st of […]
15 de Março de 2018.

Anarchism in Portugal

The increasing of the anarchism in Portugal in the 20th century has an easy explanation. In this historical text, I could write about one king of Portugal, but I decided to write about a contemporary ideology which has been more important for the history of the Portuguese society than the politics of any king of Portugal from the human point of view. The anarchism appeared in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, and in the case of Portugal appeared after the creation of the IWA (International Workingmen’s Association), that collected different ideologies of the left-wing in Europe and USA. As everybody knows, Portugal has always been a state built by three institutions: Army, University, and Church. Also […]