The History and Culture of Europe, shared with you by our European volunteers!

5 de Abril de 2019.

The second Queen of the Netherlands

Princess of the Netherlands, Princess of Oranje-Nassau, Duchess of Mecklenburg and Princess of Lippe-Biesterfeld. Juliana Louise Emma Marie Wilhelmina was the queen of the Netherlands between the 4th of September 1948 and 30th of April 1980 and was married to Prince Bernhard van Lippe-Biesterfeld. Together they had four daughters called Beatrix, Irene, Margriet, and Christina. In 2004 she died at the age of 94. An interesting story about Queen Juliana is that at the age of 19 she had to find her husband to secure the throne. The requirements were that the man should be Protestant, a foreigner and to be part of a Royal House that had ruled at least until 1918. The mother of Juliana, called Wilhelmina, used […]
3 de Abril de 2019.

Wladyslaw III of Poland

According to a Portuguese legend, the Polish king didn’t die in Varna but he settled in Madeira. Wladyslaw Warnenczyk was King of Poland, Hungary, and Croatia until his death at the age of 20, at the Battle of Varna in 1444. He was the first-born son of Wladyslaw Jagiello who was the founder of the Jagiellonian dynasty. The battle of Varna was a decisive Ottoman victory over the crusader alliance, led by Wladyslaw Warnenczyk and John Hunyadi-voivode of Transylvania, a leading Hungarian military and political figure. The young king was killed while personally leading his own 500-strong royal Polish heavy cavalry company to directly attack the Sultan who was protected by the guard cavalry and formidable Janissary infantry. The Janissaries […]
1 de Abril de 2019.

The golden age of Poland

Zygmunt moved Poland’s capital from Cracow to Warsaw “The Golden Age of Poland” occurred during the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, formally, the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, the largest and most populous countries in Europe at that time. In its largest territorial extent, the Commonwealth covered almost 1 million square km and sustained a multi-ethnic population of 11 million. Religious freedom was guaranteed by the Warsaw Confederation in 1537, which made the country one of the most tolerant. Another interesting fact is that between 1573–1795, kings to the Polish throne were selected in so-called “free elections”, disrespecting the rule of dynastic succession. The first free election took place after the last monarch of Jagiellonian dynasty died […]
29 de Março de 2019.

Henry II of France

The twenty-fifth Capetian King of France and the son of Francis I. He is the perfect representative of the figure of a French Renaissance monarch. Indeed, under his reign (from 1547 to 1559), a lot of great writers had the opportunity to enrich the classical literature of the country. We can think for example at Montaigne, Ronsard, Du Bellay and many more. It is also at that time that the new creative and artistic movement of La Pleiade emerged. When Henry was very young, he was made the prisoner of Emperor Charles Quint, being exchanged for his father’s freedom. He is released four years later. At the age of fourteen, he is married to Catherine of Medicis with who he […]
27 de Março de 2019.

King Louis IX – Saint-Louis

He had such a strong impact on the following kings. The article this month is about a King or a Queen of my country. France with a long, and complicated history had a lot of kings, some of them are more famous than the others, such as Louis XIV for example. But today I’m not going to speak to you about the “Roi-Soleil”. Let me introduce one of the most important kings, but also a quite unknown King of France: Louis IX aka Saint-Louis. Saint-Louis is the 44th King of France, from the Capétien family, his father is Louis VIII The Lion and his mother Blanche of Castille. He became king at the age of 12, but too young to […]