In this historical text, I could write about one king of Portugal, but I decided to write about a contemporary ideology which has been more important for the history of the Portuguese society than the politics of any king of Portugal from the human point of view.
The anarchism appeared in Europe in the second half of the 19th century, and in the case of Portugal appeared after the creation of the IWA (International Workingmen’s Association), that collected different ideologies of the left-wing in Europe and USA.
As everybody knows, Portugal has always been a state built by three institutions: Army, University, and Church. Also has always been a colonialist state and fascist during part of the 20th century. Two features that nowadays are proud for a very important part of the Portuguese population and institutions.
A very important fact in the Portuguese history was reaching the first Republic. In the very beginning of 20th century, the anarchism played a decisive role in the republican revolutions. The working class was fighting while the Republican leaders were hidden in their houses.
Later, Portugal shared with Spain part of their worker’s organizations (as CGT, CNT, and FAI), so some of the workers were suggesting a confederation of Iberian regions, internationalist ideas that were completely the opposite of the extreme nationalism of Salazar.
The collective organizations, where the workers were the owners of the production facilities and fields, that appeared in Spain during the Spanish Civil War (for example in Catalonia and Andalusia, especially around Barcelona, where the anarchism was proclaimed in the city halls of some cities in the 30’s) and also the war against the fascism in Spain, inspired the Portuguese anarchism.
The Portuguese Anarchist with other groups of workers, organized an attack to Salazar in 1937 without success, refusing his support to the Spanish fascism in the Spanish Civil War.
After the majority of the opposition was socialist, the Portuguese anarchism lost power, and reappeared in the 70’s inspired by groups and authors from Italy, UK, Netherlands, Germany, Australia, North America… and less by Spain, France, Brasil or Argentina as in the first half of the 20th century.
Taking into account the island of Madeira, anarchists played an active role during the flour revolution in 1931, which was a one month revolution against the Portuguese dictatorship, in which the opposition formed a government and some text were published in the ‘A batalha’ newspaper (for me this and the magazine ‘A idea’ are maybe de most representative. Both exist nowadays), that was forbidden in the continent in that period.
David Salgado Funes, a volunteer from Barcelona. Amateur flamenco guitar player and audiovisual systems engineer, really interested in contemporary history, music and other artistic expressions, learning other languages and other cultures. Every day in Madeira I am learning a little bit more about its history and its people.
Erasmus+ is a programme of the European Commission embracing the fields of education, training, youth and sports during the period 2014-2020. One of the major aspects is the cooperation between the different fields where the programme acts, hence contributing for a diverse and rich Europe.
Amongst the several goals of the programme, the following are prioritised: the objectives of the Europe 2020 Strategy, including the headline education target; the aims of the strategic framework for European cooperation in education and training (ET 2020), including the corresponding benchmarks; the sustainable development of Partner Countries in the field of higher education; the overall goals of the renewed framework for European cooperation in the youth field (2010-2018); the objective of developing the European dimension in sport, in particular grassroots sport, in line with the EU work plan for sport and the promotion of European values in accordance with Article 2 of the Treaty on the European Union.
In order to achieve these goals, the Erasmus+ has several action policies. The Key Action 1 (KA1) is directed towards the mobility of people; Key Action 2 (KA2) for the cooperation for innovation and the interchange of good experiences; and Key Action 3, which is for the support of reformation policies.
Since 1991 the University of Madeira Students’ Union has developed a wide incentive policy for voluntary work. In 2013 the Students’ Union started the process to receive, send and coordinate Erasmus+ projects of the European Voluntary Service, in order to have a larger influence in the volunteering field. The Union received its first volunteer withing the ambit of a KA1 project in 2014. Many efforts have been done to allow young people from Madeira to take part in several initiatives in Europe, as well as propose several projects allowing young people from several countries to work in the projects of the Students’ Union of the University of Madeira. The main goal of the voluntary work is the contribution of the volunteers to the communities and places they will be staying, being their work not rewarded with payment.
We believe that the European Voluntary Service is a mechanism full of experiences, allowing the approved candidates to have the privilege of taking part in these projects and benefit the places and communities where these volunteers will be staying.
Since 2013, the University of Madeira Students’ Union has received volunteers that have collaborated in several activities and initiatives. Besides being able to enjoy a wonderful experience which will contribute to their personal and professional growth, they are able to contribute in a unique way to the community in which they are inserted and to join dozens of volunteers from the University of Madeira.